Efecto del consumo de soja en relación con los síntomas de la menopausia

Andrea Pérez-Rovira, Núria Mach

Resumen


La menopausia se caracteriza por el cese de la función ovárica y la disminución hormonal de estrógenos. Estos cambios conllevan una serie de trastornos que pueden afectar a la vida de la mujer. La medicina, debido a la influencia de la industria farmacéutica, tiende a actuar de forma agresiva, y como consecuencia tenemos una población polimedicada. Los médicos suelen recetar tratamientos, como la terapia hormonal sustitutiva (THS), que ayuda a controlar estos síntomas. No obstante, recientemente varios estudios han demostrado efectos adversos asociados a la THS. Actualmente se conoce la influencia de la dieta en muchas de las enfermedades que afectan a la población de los países occidentales. Así, sla soja dietética y algunos suplementos de isoflavonas se han propuesto como alternativas para paliar los síntomas de la menopausia. Varios estudios indican que se puede utilizar las isoflavonas, de gran potencia estrogénica, como alternativa a la THS por su capacidad de reducir los síntomas menopáusicos. No obstante, el conocimiento sobre los efectos de la ingesta de isoflavonas en los síntomas de la menopausia es escaso y las publicaciones científicas recientes muestran resultados dispares. Para esclarecer esta información, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir algunos de los mecanismos mediante los cuales ejercen su acción las isoflavonas, y sus acciones beneficiosas, postulando que, como suplementos alimentarios, se podría utilizarlos como tratamiento complementario para algunos de los síntomas de la menopausia, lo que permitiría disminuir las dosis de THS.

Palabras clave


Fitoestrógenos; Isoflavonas de soja; Menopausia; Terapia hormonal sustitutiva

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.16.2.96

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