Relationship between Maternal and Children Body Mass Index in four Educational Systems in Hidalgo, México

Melissa García Meraz, Rebeca María Elena Guzmán Saldaña, Guadalupe López-Rodríguez, Marcos Galván


Introduction: While the prevalence of overweight and obesity is pervasive in adults and children in Mexico, differences and relationships among children and their mothers from different ethnic groups, educational systems, and environmental settings in Mexico is understudied.

Objective: The present study tested the relationship between Maternal Body Mass Index (MBMI) and Children’s Z-score Body Index for Age (ZBFA) from indigenous, private, public and CONAFE (community schools in marginalized rural areas) schools representing four distinct educational systems in Hidalgo, Mexico.

Methods: A survey-type study was carried out in a random sample of school children and their mothers. The weight and height of the children and their mothers was evaluated with standardize anthropometric techniques. Mothers and children’s scores were assessed following recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Results: Prevalence of overweight was very high in mothers (55.8%), without significant difference in MBMI across the four different educational systems. Children from private schools showed higher Body Mass Index, being the girls with the highest scores. Our initial model only included MBMI and Children’s ZBFA, this relationship provided us with a model that explained only 7 % of the variance. However, when we added school type as covariate in models for boys and girls, the explained variance increased (17 % and 33% respectively).

Conclusions: The results suggest the importance of the relationship of MBMI over ZIMC. Gender and environment affect this relationship, health disparities exist for indigenous and rural population compared with urbans.  Further research should explore more about indigenous and risk populations.

Palabras clave

Body Mass Index; Ethnic groups; Children; Mother-Child Relations


(1) Mitchell EA, Stewart AW, Braithwaite I, Hancox RJ, Murphy R, Wall C, and Beasley R. Birth weight and subsequent body mass index in children: an international cross-sectional study. Pediatr. Obes., 2017;12(4):280–285.

(2) Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016 (ENSANUT 2016). Informe final de resultados. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública; 2016. Available:

(3) Vassallo P, Azzolina D, Soriani N, Gregori D, and Lorenzoni G. Association between simple anthropometric measures in children of different ethnicities: Results from the OBEY-AD study. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr., 2017;67(1):98–107.

(4) Veldhuis J, te Poel F, Pepping R, Konijn EA, and Spekman MLC. "Skinny is prettier and normal: I want to be normal"-Perceived body image of non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands. Body Image., 2017;20:74–86.

(5) Datar A, Nicosia N, and Shier V. Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children’s physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: Evidence from a national longitudinal study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2013;177(10):1065–1073.

(6) O’Hara JK, and Haynes-Maslow L. Examining the Association Between School Vending Machines and Children’s Body Mass Index by Socioeconomic Status. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav., 2015;47(6):526–531.

(7) Tigga PL, and Sen J. Maternal Body Mass Index Is Strongly Associated with Children-Scores for Height and BMI. J of Anthropoly., 2016:1-10.

(8) Ackerson LK, Smith GD, and John NA. With Child Mortality, Anthropometric Failure.. Am. Med. Assoc., 2009;301(16): 1691–1701.

(9) Mohammad K, Kassab M, Gamble J, Creedy DK, and Foster J. Factors associated with birth weight inequalities in Jordan. Int. Nurs. Rev., 2014;61(3):435–440.

(10) Petrou S, and Kupek E. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: A multi-national cohort study. Soc. Sci. Med., 2010;71(7):1366–1373.

(11) Siddiqui MZ, and Donato R. Undernutrition among adults in India: The significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations. Public Health Nutr., 2017;20(1):130–141.

(12) Rachmi CN, Agho KE, Li M, and Baur LA. Stunting, underweight and overweight in children aged 2.0-4.9 years in Indonesia: Prevalence trends and associated risk factors. PLoS One, 2016;11(5):1–18.

(13) Secretaría de Educación Pública. Educación Primaria, 2018. Available:

(14) Secreataría de Educación Pública. Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educativo Conafe, 2018. Available:

(15) Gobierno del Estado de Hidalgo. Avaible:

(16) Contreras-Manzano, A. Villalpando S, Robledo-Pérez R. Vitamin D status by sociodemographic factors and body mass index in Mexican women at reproductive age. Salud Pública Mex., 2017;59(5):518-525.

(17) De Onis M., Onyango A. W., Borghi E., Siyam A., Nishida C., and Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull. World Heal. Organ., 2007;58(10):812–819.

(18) CONEVAL, 10 años de medición de pobreza en México, avances y retos de política social Hidalgo. Comunicad de prensa no. 10. Available:

(19) Chávez MC, Madrigal H, Villa AR, Guarneros N. Alta prevalencia de desnutrición en la población infantil indígena mexicana: Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999. Rev. Esp. Salud Pública. 2003;77(2): 245-255.

(20) Malina RM, Little BB, Lanceta J, Peña Reyes ME, Bali Chávez G. Geographic variation in the growth status of indigenous school children and youth in Mexico. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2018;167(4):791-803.

(21) Contreras-Manzano A, Villalpando S, Robledo-Pérez R. Vitamin D status by sociodemographic factors and body mass index in Mexican women at reproductive age. Salud Publica Mex. 2017;59(5):518-525.

(22) Rodríguez, Mundo-Rosas V, Méndez-Gómez-Humarán I, Pérez-Escamilla R, Shamah-Levy T. Dietary quality and household food insecurity among Mexican children and adolescents. Matern Child Nutr. 2017; 13(4).

(23) Espinosa AM. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2018; 75(2):104-112.

(24) Galván M, Monroy-Campos A, López-Rodríguez G, González-Unzaga M, Olivo D, Hernández-Cabrera J, Suárez-Diéguez T, Fernández-Cortés T, Guzmán-Saldaña R and Hugo Amigo. Physical activity in Mexican urban school children: Differences by nutritional status and school type. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2017;6(12): 362-368.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Copyright (c) 2019 Melissa García Meraz, Rebeca María Elena Guzmán Saldaña, Guadalupe López-Rodríguez, Marcos Galván

URL de la licencia:


Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

Esta revista ha conseguido la validación para ser Data Provider OAI-PMH version 2.0 de Open Archives Initiative (OAI)

ISSN (online): 2174-5145 / ISSN (print): 2173-1292

Abreviatura: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet

DOI revista: 10.14306/renhyd





Twitter: (@renhyd_org)



Bases de datos bibliográficas en las que está indexada:

Índices de Evaluación relativa de la Revista: 
  • CiteScore (Scopus - 2018): 0.28 (percentil 13, posición 234/272 en "Food Science")
  • SJR (SCImago Journal Rank, Scopus - 2018): 0.138 (cuartil 4, posición 255/301 en "Food Science y posición 109/124 en "Nutrition and Dietetics)
  • Índice H (Scopus): 8 []
  • REDIB (Red Iberoamericana de Innovación y Conocimiento Científico - 2018): percentil de factor de impacto = 62.572 (posición 318/921)
Evaluación de Calidad Editorial de la Revista:
Difusión en Repositorios y Portales de Revistas OpenAccess: 

 Citaciones recibidas y realizadas, artículos más consultados





Cooperación entre revistas iberoamericanas de nutrición humana:

Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana