Estrategias dietéticas y composición corporal en halterofilia de élite: Revisión Sistemática

Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Rafael M Tundidor-Duque, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias

Resumen


Introducción: Existe poca literatura que muestre las bases nutricionales para optimizar el rendimiento en halterofilia. El objetivo fue realizar una revisión sistemática de la composición corporal y composición nutricional de las dietas en halterófilos de élite.

Material y Métodos: Se revisaron artículos originales publicados en las bases de datos Pubmed, Web of Science y Sport Discuss, siguiendo los principios de la declaración PRISMA. La selección de estudios fue duplicada por dos investigadores en dos etapas (cribado y aplicación de criterios de elegibilidad). Se realizó una síntesis cualitativa de las principales características y hallazgos. Se evaluó la calidad de estudios transversales.

Resultados: De los 610 artículos encontrados, 8 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, que fueron estudios realizados en varones halterófilos de élite o alto nivel y aportasen información sobre los hábitos de alimentación y/o composición corporal de los mismos. La composición corporal identificó que el porcentaje de la masa grasa promedio estuvo en torno al 15%. Se registró una ingesta calórica de 4080,65±1602,69kcal, un consumo de proteínas de 17,29±3,2% de la energía total diaria (ETD), un 42,48±5,6% ETD de hidratos de carbono y un 36,1±9,75% ETD de grasas. Los resultados sugieren que los halterófilos de élite presentan un perfil  dietético subóptimo, observándose un exceso en la ingesta de grasas generalizado, lo que podría explicar el exceso de porcentaje de grasa corporal observado en algunos estudios en relación a las recomendaciones. El consumo de proteínas e hidratos de carbono estaba dentro de los rangos recomendados excepto en 2 estudios.

Conclusiones: Se observa una alimentación incorrecta por parte de los halterófilos de élite, que podría llegar a condicionar su composición corporal negativamente. Sería necesario un asesoramiento e intervención por parte de profesionales dietistas-nutricionistas.


Palabras clave


Levantamiento de Peso; Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta; Tejido Adiposo; Revisión Sistemática

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.21.3.353

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Copyright (c) 2017 Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

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Abreviatura: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet

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