Patrones sociales de la obesidad en España: Una revisión sistemática de la relación del nivel de educación y obesidad

Alison K Cohen, Paul J Christine, Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

Resumen


Introducción: En países de altos ingresos de todo el mundo, parece haber una asociación inversa entre el nivel educativo y la obesidad. Sin embargo, la literatura sobre esta asociación en España está desordenada y desigual.

Material y Métodos: Examinamos sistemáticamente los estudios en inglés o en español de esta asociación en España de 10 bases de datos de todos los períodos de tiempo disponible.

Resultados: La búsqueda identificó veinticuatro estudios. Tanto en estudios representativos a nivel nacional como sub-nacional, las mujeres con menos educación tenían mayores probabilidades de obesidad que sus homólogas más educadas. Los hombres, a pesar de exhibir una mayor variabilidad en la relación del nivel educativo y obesidad, también demostraron un patrón social similar de peso corporal en muchos estudios. Los niveles más bajos de educación mostraban mayor probabilidad
de padecer obesidad en comparación con sus contrapartes de mayor nivel de instrucción. Estas asociaciones, tanto en hombres como en mujeres, a pesar de existir algunas variaciones regionales, eran bastante consistentes a través del tiempo y lugar.

Discusión y conclusiones: Animamos a los futuros investigadores para avanzar hacia estimaciones imparciales y más coherentes de la asociación entre nivel educativo y la obesidad mediante el uso de exámenes físicos para la medición de talla y peso, el control de un conjunto más robusto de los posibles factores de confusión, y la exploración de potenciales factores de modificación de la asociación. Además, cuando sea posible, animamos a los investigadores a emplear diseños prospectivos de estudio que faciliten la inferencia causal en relación con esta asociación.

Palabras clave


clase social; epidemiología; sobrepeso; obesidad; nivel educativo; revisión

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.2.13

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