La ingesta de sal y el consumo de pan. Una visión amplia de la situación en España

Joan Quílez, Jordi Salas-Salvadó

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido realizar una revisión de la ingesta de sal en España (9,6 g/día) y los problemas de salud que se derivan de su excesivo consumo. Por otra parte, valorar el papel del pan relacionado con dicha ingesta y su posible reducción y/o corrección desde diferentes enfoques. Finalmente, evidenciar las consecuencias favorables de dicha corrección por medio de un cálculo teórico en un pan tipo baguette.

El pan es el alimento que aporta generalmente una mayor cantidad de sal en la dieta (19%), por lo que es uno de los objetivos clave en una política de reducción de su consumo. Se ha comprobado que es posible una disminución escalonada de sal en el pan, sobre todo cuando se parte de valores altos, aunque otra alternativa es su sustitución parcial por otras sales, principalmente potásicas, que tienen además un efecto que contrarresta al sodio (disminución de la relación Na/K). Esta sustitución debe hacerse con criterios de mantenimiento del perfil sensorial y se ve favorecida en panes con un sabor potenciado, ya sea por ingredientes o procesos, dado que ello facilita la reducción del contenido de sal. Por otra parte, la legislación europea en alegaciones nutricionales y de salud permite destacar los aspectos positivos de esta reducción y/o sustitución. La reducción de un 30% de sal en el pan, viable desde un punto de vista tecnológico, implicaría una reducción de la ingesta diaria de sal de 0,6 g.


Palabras clave


Sal; pan; sodio; potasio

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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