Necesidades proteicas de los deportistas y pautas diétetico-nutricionales para la ganancia de masa muscular

Aritz Urdampilleta, Néstor Vicente-Salar, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

Resumen


Uno de los efectos más importantes del entrenamiento de la fuerza es el aumento de la hipertrofia muscular. Para compensar sus limitaciones genéticas, los deportistas deben tratar de optimizar los recursos dietético-nutricionales. El objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar la evidencia científica del aporte proteico del deportista según las diferentes modalidades deportivas. Dependiendo del gasto y el aporte energéticos del deportista, el aporte total de proteínas de la ingesta energética diaria suele suponer un 10-15%; sin embargo, es preferible calcular la cantidad proteica necesaria por kg de peso corporal de cada individuo en concreto y según la disciplina deportiva. En este sentido, se estima que para mantener la masa muscular los deportistas deben consumir 1,2-1,8 g de proteínas/kg/día, y para aumentarla (0,5 kg masa muscular/semana) deben mantener una ingesta proteica de 1,6-1,8 g de proteína/kg/día, con un aumento de 400-500 kcal en su dieta habitual, entendiendo que estas necesidades variarán según la modalidad deportiva, la destrucción muscular generada, la masa muscular del atleta y los depósitos de glucógeno. Es importante señalar que los depósitos de glucógeno muscular y hepático vacíos aumentarían las necesidades proteicas para mantener la masa muscular. Un exceso de ingesta de proteínas (> 2 g/kg/día) con las reservas de glucógeno agotadas podría causar un aumento de la concentración de cuerpos cetónicos y urea, y producir, entre otros, deshidratación precoz del deportista.

Palabras clave


Músculos; Hipertrofia; Proteínas; Deportes; Ejercicio; Suplemento dietético, deporte; Requerimientos nutricionales

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.16.1.103

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