Ingesta nutricional en pacientes afectados de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica una consulta ambulatoria de nutrición artificial en Portugal

Autores/as

  • Sandra Carrera Juliá 1 Doctoral School, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain. 2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.
  • Ana Catarina-Moreira 3 Lisbon Higher School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal. 4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal.
  • Carla Adriana-Santos 4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal. 5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal. 6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal.
  • Jorge Fonseca 5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal. 6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal. 7 PaMNEC- Medical Pathology Group, Nutrition and Clinical Exercise, CiiEM, Interdisciplinary Research Centre Egas Moniz, 2829-511 Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
  • Eraci Drehmer 2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.25.4.1308

Palabras clave:

Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral, Ingestión de Alimentos, Estado Nutricional, Antioxidantes, Portugal

Resumen

Introducción: La Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) es una patología neurodegenerativa crónica y progresiva, que produce la muerte de las motoneuronas. Deriva en pérdida de peso, de masa muscular e incremento de deficiencias nutricionales. Existe relación entre la ingesta nutricional y la patogénesis de la ELA. El objetivo de este análisis fue describir las características sociodemográficas, antropométricas y clínicas junto con la ingesta nutricional en una muestra de pacientes portugueses afectados de ELA.

Material y Métodos: Se realizó una anamnesis clínica breve. El peso corporal fue evaluado siguiendo el protocolo de la International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) y la talla mediante el expediente clínico del paciente. Se realizó una anamnesis dietético-nutricional y un registro dietético. La ingesta nutricional se analizó con el software Nutrición y Salud® y se comparó con las Ingestas Dietéticas de Referencia (IDR). El índice de adecuación nutricional se consideró inferior a las recomendaciones cuando fue ≤ 80%.

Resultados: Fueron analizados 13 pacientes (7 hombres) con edades comprendidas entre los 53-83 años. El 69,20% presentó ELA bulbar. Un 54% presentó normopeso. Todos los pacientes presentaron disfagia y disartria y un 84,62% constipación. En comparación a las IDR, en ambos sexos, se identificó deficiencia nutricional de fibra, vitamina D, E, B8, B9, calcio, magnesio y yodo, acompañado de un exceso nutricional de proteínas, lípidos, ácidos grasos saturados y sodio.

Conclusiones:  El hallazgo de estas deficiencias nutricionales es relevante ya que los nutrientes involucrados influyen sobre los mecanismos patogénicos de la ELA, porque son antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios y contribuyen al normal funcionamiento de las motoneuronas. Los excesos nutricionales identificados se relacionan con estrés oxidativo, inflamación y mayor riesgo de ELA. Son necesarios más estudios en muestras de mayor tamaño para contribuir a la comprensión de la relación entre las carencias y excesos nutricionales y el riesgo de desarrollo y/o progresión de la enfermedad.

Biografía del autor/a

Sandra Carrera Juliá, 1 Doctoral School, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain. 2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.

Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.

PhD student, PDI, Dietitian, Nutritionist.

Ana Catarina-Moreira, 3 Lisbon Higher School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal. 4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal.

3 Lisbon Higher School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal.

4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal.

PDI, Dra. in nutrition, Dietitian, nutritionist.

Carla Adriana-Santos, 4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal. 5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal. 6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal.

4 H&TRC -Health and Technology Research Center, Portugal.  
5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal.
6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal.

PDI, Dra. in nutrition, Dietistitian, nutritionist.

Jorge Fonseca, 5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal. 6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal. 7 PaMNEC- Medical Pathology Group, Nutrition and Clinical Exercise, CiiEM, Interdisciplinary Research Centre Egas Moniz, 2829-511 Monte da Caparica, Portugal.

5 Nutrition Service, Garcia de Orta Hospital, Portugal.
6 GENE–Artificial Feeding Team, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal.
7 PaMNEC-
Medical Pathology Group,
Nutrition and Clinical Exercise,
CiiEM,
Interdisciplinary Research Centre
Egas Moniz, 2829-511 Monte da Caparica, Portugal.

PDI, Doctor, Dr. in medicine.

Eraci Drehmer, 2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.

2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Mártir", Valencia, Spain.

PDI, Dra. in nutrition, dietitian, nutritionist.

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Publicado

2021-07-05

Cómo citar

Carrera Juliá, S., Catarina-Moreira, A., Adriana-Santos, C., Fonseca, J., & Drehmer, E. (2021). Ingesta nutricional en pacientes afectados de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica una consulta ambulatoria de nutrición artificial en Portugal. Revista Española De Nutrición Humana Y Dietética. https://doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.25.4.1308

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Artículos de investigación